Climate change caused by human activities is by far the worst threat to biodiversity in the Arctic. Some of these changes are already visible, according to a new report prepared by 253 scientists led by Dr Hans Meltofte of Aarhus University.
Unique and irreplaceable Arctic wildlife and landscapes are crucially at risk due to global warming caused by human activities according to the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), a new report prepared by 253 scientists from 15 countries under the auspices of the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council.
From the iconic polar bear and elusive narwhal to the tiny Arctic flowers and lichens that paint the tundra in the summer months, the Arctic is home to a diversity of highly adapted animal, plant, fungal and microbial species. All told, there are more than 21,000 species.
Maintaining biodiversity in the Arctic is important for many reasons. For Arctic peoples, biodiversity is a vital part of their material and spiritual existence. Arctic fisheries and tourism have global importance and represent immense economic value. Millions of Arctic birds and mammals that migrate and connect the Arctic to virtually all parts of the globe are also at risk from climate change in the Arctic as well as from development and hunting in temperate and tropical areas. Marine and terrestrial ecosystems such as vast areas of lowland tundra, wetlands, mountains, extensive shallow ocean shelves, millennia-old ice shelves and huge seabird cliffs are characteristic to the Arctic. These are now at stake, according to the report.
“Climate change is by far the worst threat to Arctic biodiversity. Temperatures are expected to increase more in the Arctic compared to the global average, resulting in severe disruptions to Arctic biodiversity some of which are already visible,” warns Meltofte.
A planetary increase of 2°C, the worldwide agreed upon acceptable limit of warming, is projected to result in vastly more heating in the Arctic with anticipated temperature increases of 2.8 – 7.8°C this century. Such dramatic changes will likely result in severe damage to Arctic biodiversity.
Climate change impacts are already visible in several parts of the Arctic. These include northward range expansions of many species, earlier snow melt, earlier sea ice break-up and melting permafrost together with development of new oceanic current patterns.
It is expected that climate change could shrink Arctic ecosystems on land, as northward moving changes are pressed against the boundary of the Arctic Ocean: the so-called Arctic squeeze. As a result, Arctic terrestrial ecosystems may disappear in many places, or only survive in alpine or island refuges.
Disappearing sea ice is affecting marine species, changing dynamics in the marine food web and productivities of the sea. Many unique species found only in the Arctic rely on this ice to hunt, rest, breed and/or escape predators.
Status and Trends of Arctic Biodiversity
“Status and Trends in Arctic Biodiversity”, a film inspired by the investigations of the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment, and presented by the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) and the Arctic Council in partnership with UNEP GRID-Arendal:
(Source: CAFFBiodiversity on YouTube)
Key findings and threats to biodiversity, according the ABA:
Arctic biodiversity is being degraded, but decisive action taken now can help sustain vast, relatively undisturbed ecosystems of tundra, mountains, fresh water and seas and the valuable services they provide
Climate change is by far the most serious threat to biodiversity in the Arctic
Many Arctic migratory species are threatened by overharvest and habitat alteration outside of the Arctic especially birds along the East Asian flyway
Disturbance and habitat degradation can diminish Arctic biodiversity and the opportunities for Arctic residents and visitors to enjoy the benefits of ecosystem services
Pollution from both long-range transport and local sources threatens the health of Arctic species and ecosystems
There are currently few invasive alien species in the Arctic, but more are expected with climate change and increased human activity
Overharvest was historically the primary human impact on many Arctic species but sound management has successfully addressed this problem in most, but not all, cases
Current knowledge of many Arctic species, ecosystems and their stressors is fragmentary, making detection and assessment of trends and their implications difficult for many aspects of Arctic biodiversity
The challenges facing Arctic biodiversity are interconnected, requiring comprehensive solutions and international cooperation